The Problem Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide, a widespread and deadly disease concentrated in equatorial regions--primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, where ninety percent of malaria-related deaths occur. Each year, over 200 million people become infected with malaria. Of those cases, the disease will prove fatal for 435,000 people. Sixty-one percent of these deaths are of children under five years old, making malaria one of the leading causes of child mortality in Africa. Even when non-fatal, malaria can damage children’s cognitive development. In many developing countries, malaria is the leading cause of death for pregnant women. Malaria is a drain on households and countries; it is estimated to cost Africa US$12 billion every year in costs of health care, absenteeism, days lost in education, decreased productivity due to brain damage from cerebral malaria, and loss of investment and tourism.