The Problem Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide, a widespread and deadly disease concentrated in equatorial regions, primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, where 93% of malaria-related deaths occur. Each year, over 200 million people become infected with malaria. Of those cases, the disease proves fatal for 435,000 people. 61% of these deaths are of children under five years old, making malaria one of the leading causes of child mortality in Africa. Even when non-fatal, malaria can damage children’s cognitive development. Pregnant women are also highly vulnerable, with the health of both mother and unborn child at risk. Malaria is a drain on households and countries; it is estimated to cost Africa US$12 billion every year in direct costs of health care, absenteeism, days lost in education, decreased productivity, and loss of investment and tourism, with much higher costs in lost economic growth.